Glossary of Thread Terms
Blend – Yarn obtained when two or more fibers are combined.
Blend Level ID – lists the percentages of the different fibers blended together.
Example- 65/35 poly/cotton
Break Factor – a factor that correlates yarn strength between different yarn counts. Obtained by multiplying yarn count by breaking strength.
Cone – the package upon which yarn is wound after spinning. A tapered cylinder of cardboard or plastic. (We use cardboard)
Cotton – white, soft, fiberous substance that surrounds the seeds of the cotton plant.
Denier – numbering system for representing yarn size of man-made fialment yarns.
Direction of twist – a yarn has S-twist if, when held in a vertical position, the spiral conforms in shape to the central portion of the letter S. The same method applies for determining Z-twist.
Doubling – Combines several yarns together to form a single plied yarn.
Elongation – the amount of stretch that a fiber will accept.
Equivalent Yarn Number – Represents plied yarn as if it were singles.
Yarn Count divided by ply equals EYN
12 divided by 3 equals 4
Filler Cord – Low grade cotton specialty yarn
Flat yarn – a continuous rope of parallel fibers with no twist applied (3/4″-1″ in diameter)
Finisher Winding – Rewinds plied yarn to various sized packages ready for shipment.
Hand – the “feel” of a textile product. The qualities that can be gotten by touching it.
Hank – 840 yards of yarn.
Plied Yarn Identification – identifies yarns plied together. Lists the singles yarn number and then the number of plies.
Example: three yarns of 12.00’s
Ply Yarn – a yarn in which two or more single strands are twisted together.
Polyester – a man-made or manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of an ester of a dihydric alcohol and terephthalic acid. Common trade names are Fortrel, Dacron, and Kodel.
Singles Yarn – a strand of fibers held together by twist
Skein -120 yards of yarn
Single End Product – break factor divided by number plies in thread.
Splice-the joining or typing together of two or more strands of yarn to make a continuous thread.
Synthetic Fiber – a man-made fiber of chemicals that were never fiberous in form.
Tensile Strength – the maximum force required to rupture or break a fiber, expressed in pounds.
Textile – any product made from fibers.
Thread – a specialized type of yarn for a particular purpose. This is made from yarn, but yarn is not made from thread. Usually plied.
Tie Tail – allows for two packages to be tied together during processing. Eliminates down time, by keeping thread from running out.
Torque – The tightness of the twist. Example: If yarn curls up it has too much torque.
Tube – same function as cone but not tapered. Cylindrical in shape.
Twist – the number of turns about its axis, per unit of length in yarn. it is expressed in turns per inch or TPI. Twist is controlled mechanically. Twist is essential in giving strength to yarn.
Twisting – Inserts twist into the plied yarns to improve uniformity and strength.
Yarn – a group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand which can be used in weaving or other textile materials.
Yarn Count or Yarn Number – the size or fineness of yarn. The number relates a unit length to a unit weight.
Example: 12.00’s yarn
=12 hanks per pound
=12 x 840 yards
=10,080 yards per pound
Yield – Refers to the yards per pound of product.
Example: 12.00/3 ply.
Yield=12.00 divided by 3 = 4.00 x 840 = 3360 yards per pounds